Maliki Fiqh QA

Islamic Questions & Answers according to the Maliki School

Proofs of Making One Taslim in The Maliki School

 

By Muhammad Umar Mustafa

In the Name of Allah, the Most-Gracious, the Most-Merciful. Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon the Messenger of Allah, his family (Ahlul-Bayt) and companions (Sahabah). All praise is due to Allah.

To begin, in regard to the obligatory prayer, some have an issue with the school of Imam Malik ibn Anas for making only one Taslim when ending the prayer.

This has become a point of controversy among the common Muslims, but it has never been an issue among the learned scholars (‘Ulama) among any school of thought (Madhahib).

Because of this controversy or confusion, when the common Muslim prays behind an adherent to the Maliki Madhab, especially if they are from another school of thought themselves, they may become confused as to why the Imam would say only one Taslim.

They may not know that if the Imam chooses to follow the relied upon opinion of Medina within the Maliki school – meaning to exit the prayer with one Taslim (saying As-Salamu Alaykum to end the prayer), then there is nothing wrong with that.

What this section aims to achieve is to list various Prophetic sayings (Ahadith), as well as various sayings of the scholars (Aqwal al-Ulama) within all four schools of thought on the legitimacy of one Taslim.

Some will say, “Well, to bring unity, why not just do what the clear majority of the Muslim community does? Meaning, why don’t you just do the 2 Taslims and avoid the confusion, since it seems like you are the one going against the clear majority of the scholars”?  Isn’t it still Sunnah to say 2 Taslim?

To respond to the above, we would encourage one to learn a little more about this Islamic way of life, especially the law, in order to avoid speaking in an ill-mannered fashion of the valid differences between the scholars of the people of the Sunnah and community (Ahlus Sunnah wal-Jama’ah).  

Al-Hafiz al-Bayhaqi, Allah have Mercy upon him, in his book “Al-Madkhal” and Imam al-Zarkashi in his “Tadhkirah fi al-Ahadith al-Mushtaharah” relate:

Imam al-Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr al-Siddiq, Allah be well pleased with them, said:

“The differences among the Companions of Muhammad ﷺ are a mercy for the servants of Allah”.

As such, the layman or scholar alike should not blame or disparage someone for following the valid opinion of making one taslim as this is what Imam Malik ibn Anas and the people of Medina conclude that The Messenger of Allah ﷺ ended His prayers with.

In addition to the Ahadith or Prophetic sayings below; saying the one taslim is what has been related to have been the practice of the people of Medina which is a proof in the Maliki school since the Prophet ﷺ passed to the next life in the city of Medina and those who spent the most time with him were the Sahabah or the companions of the Prophet ﷺ who learned the sacred law and a great portion of the Quran within the city of Medina. They, then in turn taught their children how to pray, the children, then, likewise taught their children how to pray in this fashion. This practice is what Imam Malik saw the people of Medina doing, it is simple as that. They were followed because these scholars and community learned the prayer (Salah) from their parents who learned from their parents who learned from the Prophet ﷺ.

Ahadith and Athar (Narrations from The Sahabah & Tabi’un)

1.

عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم كَانَ يُسَلِّمُ فِي الصَّلاَةِ تَسْلِيمَةً وَاحِدَةً تِلْقَاءَ وَجْهِهِ يَمِيلُ إِلَى الشِّقِّ الأَيْمَنِ شَيْئًا ‏

Aisha رضي الله عنها narrated: ” The Messenger of Allah ﷺ would say one Taslim for the prayer (Salat) while facing forward and turning to his right side just a little bit.”

Related in the Jami` of Imam at-Tirmidhi – Imam Hakim said: “This narration is authentic upon the conditions set down by Imam al-Bukhari & Muslim, Imam/Hafiz al-Dhahabi agreed with this stance and so did Imam al-Daraqutni in his Sahih, as well as Imam ibn Khuzaiyma in his Sahih

2.

روى أحمدُ عن عائشة رضي الله عنها في صِفة صلاة وِتْر رسولِ الله صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم قالتْ: “… ثُمَّ يَجلس فيتشهَّد ويدعو، ثُمَّ يُسلّم تسليمةً واحدة: السَّلام عليْكم، يَرفع بها صوتَه حتَّى يوقظَنا”.

Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal narrates from Aisha رضي الله عنها who narrated in regard to how the Messenger of Allah ﷺ would pray the odd prayer (Salatul-Witr), she said (summarized version of the Hadith):

”He – The Prophet ﷺ sat for Tashahhud, recited it, then he supplicated, then he did one salam, raising his voice with it until he almost woke us up. (as the members of his household were asleep whilst he was praying).”

| Related in the Musnad of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal |

3.

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو مُصْعَبٍ الْمَدِينِيُّ، أَحْمَدُ بْنُ أَبِي بَكْرٍ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الْمُهَيْمِنِ بْنُ عَبَّاسِ بْنِ سَهْلِ بْنِ سَعْدٍ السَّاعِدِيُّ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ جَدِّهِ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ سَلَّمَ تَسْلِيمَةً وَاحِدَةً تِلْقَاءَ وَجْهِهِ ‏

‘Abdul-Muhaimin bin ‘Abbas bin Sahl bin Sa’d As-Sa’idi رضي الله عنهم narrated from his father, from his grandfather, that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said one Taslim to the front. – (Starting from front and finishing slightly to the right as shown by the first hadith)

| Related in the Sunan of Imam ibn Majah and it is Authentic |

4.

وعن أبي هريرة رضي الله تعالى عنه: ” أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم صلى على جنازة، فكبر عليها أربعا، وسلم تسليمة واحدة “

Abu Hurairah رضي الله عنه narrated: “Most certainly, the Prophet ﷺ prayed upon a funeral, and he did four takbirs, and he did one Taslim.”

Related by Imam al-Daraqutni, also within the Mustadrak alas Sahihayn – The Explanation of the Sahih of Bukhari and Muslim of Imam al-Hakim, Imam al-Bayhaqi says, “The isnad or chain of narration is good-fine Hasan

5.

قال ابن المنذر في الأوسط – حدثنا إبراهيم بن عبد الله قال : أخبرنا عبد الله بن بكر قال : ثنا حميد قال : صليت مع أنس فكان يسلم تسليمة واحدة : السلام عليكم

Imam ibn Al-Mundhir relates in Al-Awsat that Humaid رضي الله عنه said:

“I Prayed with (the companion/Sahabi) Anas Ibn Malik رضي الله عنه and he used to say the salam once: As-Salamu-Alaykum.”

| Related in the al-Awsat of Ibn Al-Mundhir Ash-Shafi |

6.

قال ابن أبي شيبة – حدثنا يونس بن محمد قال حدثنا جرير بن حازم عن أيوب عن أنس أن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم سلم تسليمة

Anas رضي الله عنه narrated: “The Prophet ﷺ only did one Taslim.”

| Related in the Musannaf of Imam Ibn Abi Shaybah and it is authentic |

7.

قال ابن ماجه – حدثنا محمد بن الحارث المصري حدثنا يحيى بن راشد عن يزيد مولى سلمة عن سلمة بن الأكوع قال رأيت رسول الله-صلى الله عليه وسلم- صلى فسلم مرة واحدة.

Salma ibn Ak’wa رضي الله عنه narrated: “I saw the Prophet ﷺ praying, and he only said Assalamu-Alaykum once.”

| Related in the Sunan of Imam ibn Majah and it is authentic |

8.

قال الدارقطني – حدثنا يحيى بن محمد بن صاعد حدثنا يحيى بن خالد أبو سليمان المخزومي المدني حدثنا عبد الله بن نافع الصائغ عن عبد المهيمن بن عباس بن سهل الساعدي عن أبيه عن جده أن رسول الله -صلىالله عليه وسلم- سلم تسليمة واحدة عن يمينه من الصلاة.

Sahl Ibn Sa’d رضي الله عنه relates from his father who relates from his grandfather: “The Prophet ﷺ only said one Salam to his right side.”

| Related in the Sunan of Imam ad-Daraqutni and it is authentic |

9.

قال عبد الرزاق – عن جعفر بن سليمان قال : أخبرنا الصلت بن دينار قال : سمعت الحسن يقول : كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وأبو بكر وعمر وعثمان يسلمون تسليمة واحدة ، قال الصلت : وصليت خلف عمر بن عبدالعزيز فسلم واحدة

ibn Dinar رضي الله عنه said that Hasan رضي الله عنه said:

“The Prophet ﷺ, Abu-Bakr, Umar, and Uthman رضي الله عنهم used to all say one salam, and then As ‘salt رضي الله عنه said: and I prayed behind Umar Ibn Abdul-Aziz and he did salam once.”

| Related in the Musannaf of Imam Abdur-Razzaq – Hasan Li Ghayrihi |

10.

وقال ابن أبي شيبة – قال حدثنا وكيع عن الربيع عن الحسن أن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم وأبا بكر وعمر كانوا يسلمون تسليمة واحدة

Rabi’ relates from Imam al-Hassan رضي الله عنه who said: “The Prophet ﷺ, Abu Bakr, & Umar رضي الله عنهم all used to say one Taslim.”

| Related in the Musannaf of Imam ibn Abi-Shaybah and it is authentic |

11.

قال ابن أبي شيبة – حدثنا أبو خالد الأحمر عن حميد قال كان أنس يسلم واحدة

Humaid رضي الله عنه narrates that Anas ibn Malik رضي الله عنه used to do one salam (by ending saying As-Salamu Alaykum).

| Related in the Musannaf of Imam ibn Abi-Shaybah and it is authentic |

12.

وقال عبد الرزاق – عن ابن جريج قال أخبرني نافع وسألته : كيف كان ابن عمر يسلم إذا كان إمامكم ؟ قال : عن يمينه واحدة السلام عليكم

Ibn Juraij says, “I asked Naf’i, how did Abdullah Ibn Umar رضي الله عنه say the Salam when he was your leader (Imam). He Said, ‘“He did so by saying once to his right side, “Assalamu-Alaykum.”’

| Related in the Musannaf of Imam Abdur-Razzaq and it is authentic |

13.

قال ابن خزيمة 730 – أنا أبو طاهر نا أبوبكر نا محمد بن يحيى نا معلى بن أسد العمي حدثنا وهيب عن عبيد الله بن عمر عن القاسم عن عائشة رضي الله عنها : أنها كانت تسلم تسليمة واحدة قبالة وجهها السلام عليكم .

Umar Ibn Al-Qasim relates, “Aisha would say the Taslim once opposite her face (meaning on her right side) with the wording As-Salamu-Alaykum.”

وصحح إسناده الأعظمي ورواه أيضاً ابن أبي شيبة

Al-A’dhami authenticated its chain, and Imam ibn Abi Shaybah narrated it as well.

14.

حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ حُسَيْنٍ الدِّرْهَمِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ أَبِي عَدِيٍّ، عَنْ بَهْزِ بْنِ حَكِيمٍ، حَدَّثَنَا زُرَارَةُ بْنُ أَوْفَى، ‏:‏ أَنَّ عَائِشَةَ، – رضى الله عنها – سُئِلَتْ عَنْ صَلاَةِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِي جَوْفِ اللَّيْلِ، فَقَالَتْ ‏:‏ كَانَ يُصَلِّي صَلاَةَ الْعِشَاءِ فِي جَمَاعَةٍ، ثُمَّ يَرْجِعُ إِلَى أَهْلِهِ فَيَرْكَعُ أَرْبَعَ رَكَعَاتٍ، ثُمَّ يَأْوِي إِلَى فِرَاشِهِ وَيَنَامُ وَطَهُورُهُ مُغَطًّى عِنْدَ رَأْسِهِ، وَسِوَاكُهُ مَوْضُوعٌ حَتَّى يَبْعَثَهُ اللَّهُ سَاعَتَهُ الَّتِي يَبْعَثُهُ مِنَ اللَّيْلِ، فَيَتَسَوَّكُ وَيُسْبِغُ الْوُضُوءَ، ثُمَّ يَقُومُ إِلَى مُصَلاَّهُ فَيُصَلِّي ثَمَانِ رَكَعَاتٍ يَقْرَأُ فِيهِنَّ بِأُمِّ الْكِتَابِ وَسُورَةٍ مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ وَمَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ، وَلاَ يَقْعُدُ فِي شَىْءٍ مِنْهَا حَتَّى يَقْعُدَ فِي الثَّامِنَةِ، وَلاَ يُسَلِّمُ، وَيَقْرَأُ فِي التَّاسِعَةِ، ثُمَّ يَقْعُدُ فَيَدْعُو بِمَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ أَنْ يَدْعُوَهُ، وَيَسْأَلُهُ وَيَرْغَبُ إِلَيْهِ وَيُسَلِّمُ تَسْلِيمَةً وَاحِدَةً شَدِيدَةً، يَكَادُ يُوقِظُ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ مِنْ شِدَّةِ تَسْلِيمِهِ، ثُمَّ يَقْرَأُ وَهُوَ قَاعِدٌ بِأُمِّ الْكِتَابِ، وَيَرْكَعُ وَهُوَ قَاعِدٌ، ثُمَّ يَقْرَأُ الثَّانِيَةَ فَيَرْكَعُ وَيَسْجُدُ وَهُوَ قَاعِدٌ، ثُمَّ يَدْعُو مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ أَنْ يَدْعُوَ، ثُمَّ يُسَلِّمُ وَيَنْصَرِفُ، فَلَمْ تَزَلْ تِلْكَ صَلاَةَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم حَتَّى بَدَّنَ فَنَقَصَ مِنَ التِّسْعِ ثِنْتَيْنِ، فَجَعَلَهَا إِلَى السِّتِّ وَالسَّبْعِ وَرَكْعَتَيْهِ وَهُوَ قَاعِدٌ حَتَّى قُبِضَ عَلَى ذَلِكَ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏

Zurarh ibn said that Aisha was asked about the midnight prayer of the Messenger of Allah. She said, “He used to offer his night prayer in congregation and the return to his house and pray 4 rak’as. Then he would go to his bed and sleep, the water for his ablution was placed covered. He would not sit during any of them but sit after the 8th rak’a, and would not utter the saluted near his head and his tooth-stick was also kept there until Allah awakened him at night. He then used the tooth-stick, performed ablution perfectly then came to the place of prayer and would pray eight rak’as, in which he would recite Surah, and a surah from the Quran as Allah, but recite – The Quran during the ninth rak’a. Then he would sit and supplicate as Allah willed, and beg him and devote his attention to him, he would utter the salutation once in such a loud voice that the inmates of the house were almost awakened by his loud salutation. He would then recite Surah Al-Fatihah while sitting, bow while sitting, and then recite the Quran during the second rak’a, and would bow and prostrate while sitting. He would supplicate to Allah as long as he willed, then uttered the Salam – ( it says ثُمَّ يُسَلِّمُ not ثُمَ يُسَلِمُ ٍسلامين )

ثُمَّ يُسلّم تسليمةً واحدة: السَّلام عليْكم، يَرفع بها صوتَه حتَّى يوقظَنا

As mentioned in the second hadith – Imam Ahmad Bin Hanbal records the hadith with this wording) then he turned away. This amount of prayer of the messenger of Allah continued till he put some weight. During that period, he retracted two rakat from nine and began to pray six and 7 standing and 2 sitting. This continued until he died.

| Related in the Sunan of Imam Abi-Dawud – Good/Fine – Hasan Hadith | (Ibn Hajar in Talkhis Al-Kabir said that this Sanad is authentic on the conditions of Imam Muslim)


 

15.

حَدَّثَنَا عُثْمَانُ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا وَكِيعٌ، عَنْ سُفْيَانَ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَقِيلٍ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ ابْنِ الْحَنَفِيَّةِ، عَنْ عَلِيٍّ، رضى الله عنه قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ “‏ مِفْتَاحُ الصَّلاَةِ الطُّهُورُ وَتَحْرِيمُهَا التَّكْبِيرُ وَتَحْلِيلُهَا التَّسْلِيمُ ‏”‏

Ali ibn Abi Talib رضي الله عنه narrates that the Prophet said:

“The key to prayer is purification; its beginning is takbir and its end is Taslim.”

Note – The fact that he said, “The Taslim,” is proof of the permissibility of one Taslim. Were one to say, ‘he means two Taslims,’ then we’d say, ‘then he means two takbirs’ when he says ‘the takbir.’ But none accept that to be a valid interpretation. So, it is established that one Taslim has hadith support.

| This is related in the Sunan of Imam Abi Dawud and it is authentic. |

16.

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ سَعِيدٍ الأَنْصَارِيِّ، عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، أَنَّهُ أَخْبَرَهُ أَنَّ عَائِشَةَ زَوْجَ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم كَانَتْ تَقُولُ إِذَا تَشَهَّدَتِ التَّحِيَّاتُ الطَّيِّبَاتُ الصَّلَوَاتُ الزَّاكِيَاتُ لِلَّهِ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولُهُ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكُمْ

Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said al-Ansari that Al-Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad told him that A’isha, the wife of the Prophet, ﷺ used to say in the tashahhud, “Greetings, good words, prayers, pure actions belong to Allah. I testify that there is no god except Allah, alone without partner, and I testify that Muhammad is the slave of Allah and His Messenger. Peace be upon you, Prophet, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings. Peace be upon us and on the slaves of Allah who are salihun. Peace be upon you. “

“At-tahiyatu, at-tayibatu, as-Salawatu, az-zakiyatu lillah. Ash-hadu an la ilaha illa’llah, wahdahu la sharika llah wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan abduhu wa rasuluhu. As-Salamu alayka ayyuha-n-nabiyyu wa rahmatu-llahi wa barakatuhu. As-Salamu Alayna wa ala ibadi-llahi’s-salihin. Then As-Salamu alaykum

Muwatta of Imam Malik and it is authentic. – There are other ways to recite it as well, this is one of the narrations.

17.

قال ابن القيم في زاد المعاد : قَالَ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ الْقَاسِمِ قِيلَ لِأَبِي عَبْدِ اللّهِ أَتَعْرِفُ عَنْ أَحَدٍ كَانَ يُسَلّمُ عَلَى الْجِنَازَةِ تَسْلِيمَتَيْنِ ؟ قَالَ لَا وَلَكِنْ عَنْ سِتّةٍ مِنْ الصّحَابَةِ أَنّهُمْ كَانُوا يُسَلّمُونَ تَسْلِيمَةً وَاحِدَةً خَفِيفَةً عَنْ يَمِينِهِ فَذَكَرَ ابْنَ عُمَرَ وَابْنَ عَبّاسٍ وَأَبَا هُرَيْرَةَ وَوَاثِلَةَ بْنَ الْأَسْقَعِ وَابْنَ أَبِي أَوْفَى وَزَيْدَ بْنَ ثَابِتٍ . وَزَادَ الْبَيْهَقِيّ : عَلِيّ بْنَ أَبِي طَالِبٍ وَجَابِرَ بْنَ عَبْدِ اللّهِ وَأَنَسَ بْنَ مَالِكٍ وَأَبَا أُمَامَةَ بْنَ سَهْلِ بْنِ حُنَيْفٍ فَهَؤُلَاءِ عَشَرَةٌ مِنْ الصّحَابَةِ

Ibn Al-Qayyim says in Za’ad Ul-Ma’ad; “Ahmad Ibn Al-Qasim said, `it was said to my father, Abdullah  ,`do you know anyone who ever said 2 Taslims upon completing The Janazah Prayer, My Father said, `No rather, it has been narrated from 6 of The Sahabah that they use to say Taslim with one Light Taslim upon his right – The Dead Body – and Ibn Umar mentioned those who did 1 Taslim by name: Ibn Abbas, Abu Huraira, Wathilah Ibn Al-Asqa, Ibn Abi-Awfa, Zaid ibn Thabit, رضي الله عنهم and Imam Al-Bayhaqi mentioned more; `Ali bin Abi-Talib, Jabir Ibn Abd-Allah, Anas Ibn-Malik, and Abu Umamah رضي الله عنهم. So, all together mentioned, are 10 men from amongst The Sahabah.’’’’

18.

قد روى عن عثمان أنه كان يسلم تسليمة واحدة أخرجه الطبري

It has been narrated that (Caliph) Uthman ibn Affan رضي الله عنه used to say one salam.

| Related by Imam al-Tabari |

19.

عَنْ عَطَاءِ بْنِ السَّائِبِ ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم : سَلَّمَ عَلَى الْجَنَازَةِ تَسْلِيمَةً وَاحِدَةً.أخرجه أبو داود في المراسيل بسند صحيح

At’a Ibn Sai’b رضي الله عنه, narrated:

“Indeed, the Prophet ﷺ used to say the Taslim once upon the funeral prayer (Janazah).”

| The Marasil of Imam Abu Dawud |

20.

حديث ابن عمر رضي الله عنه، فعنه قَالَ: كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ يَفْصِلُ بَيْنَ الشَّفْعِ وَالْوِتْرِ بِتَسْلِيمَةٍ يُسْمِعُنَاهَا

Abdullah Ibn Umar رضي الله عنه narrates:

“The Prophet ﷺ used to separate between the even prayer (Shaf’), and the odd prayer (Witr) with 1 Salam. (Meaning, by praying 2 Rakat with a Salam, and then 1 Rakat with a Salam).

21.

حدثنا يحيى بن سعيد القطان عن وفاء: أن سعيد بن جبير كان يسلم تسليمة

Said Ibn Al-Qattan relates, “Indeed Said ibn al-Jubair use to say 1 Taslim only”.

22.

. عن أنس بن مالك رضي الله عنه :أن النبي  كان يسلم تسليمة واحدة

Anas ibn Malik رضي الله عنه relates that the Prophet ﷺ used to say the Taslim once.

(Related in the Sunan of Imam al-Bayhaqi – Sahih according to Hafiz ibn Hajar al-Asqalani and he said all of chain (Isnad) has all the men (Rijaal) of Imam al-Bukhari) (Meaning people whom Imam al-Bukhari deem as sound/strong.)

23. قال ابن المنذر – و حدثونا عن إسحاق بن راهويه قال: أخبرنا أنس بن عياض ، عن يزيد بن أبي عبيد قال: رأيت سلمة وهو ابن الأكوع ، يسلم تسليمة إذا انصرف من الصلاة قبل وجهه إذا كان مع الإمام وغيره

Yazid Ibn Ubaid said, “I saw Salma Ibn Ak’wa رضي الله عنه say the Taslim once if he was praying behind an Imam or other than that.

| Related in the al-Awsat of Imam ibn al-Mundhir and it is authentic |

24. قال ابن أبي شيبة – حدثنا عبد الأعلى عن خالد عن أنس بن سيرين عن ابن عمر أنه كان يسلم تسليمة

Anas ibn Sireen relates from Abdullah ibn Umar رضي الله عنه that he used to say 1 Taslim.

| Related in the Musannaf of Imam ibn Abi-Shaybah and it is authentic |

25.

روى أنس: “أن النبي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – وأبا بكر وعمر وعثمان كانوا يسلمون تسليمة واحدة”

Anas رضي الله عنه narrates: “Most certainly, the Prophet ﷺ, Abu-Bakr (al-Siddique), Umar (al-Faruq), and Uthman (Dhun Nurayn) رضي الله عنهم all did 1 Taslim.”

قال الزيلعي: أخرجه البيهقي في المعرفة (نصب الراية: 1/ 434)، وقال الهيثمي: رجاله رجال الصحيح (مجمع الزوائد: 2/ 146).

(Related by Imam al-Bayhaqi in his Sunan; also in the Majma Uz Zawaid of Imam al-Haythami (not al-Makki al-Ansari. Many people confuse them) said, “The Hadith narrators are all authentic.”

26.

أخرجه الدارقطني عن سَهْلٍ بن سعد السَّاعِدِىِّ: أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ -صلى الله عليه وسلم- سَلَّمَ تَسْلِيمَةً وَاحِدَةً عَنْ يَمِينِهِ مِنَ الصَّلاَةِ”. وأخرج عنه –أيضا- أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ -صلى الله عليه وسلم- يُسَلِّمُ تَسْلِيمَةً وَاحِدَةً لاَ يَزِيدُ عَلَيْهَا”

Sahl Ibn Sa’d As-Sa’idi رضي الله عنه narrates, “The Prophet ﷺ said 1 Taslim on his right to end his prayer, it is also related from him that he heard The Prophet ﷺ saying 1 Taslim and he did not increase it (with a second Taslim).”

| Related in the Sunan of Imam Ad-Daraqutni – Hasan Li Ghayrihi |

27.

وأخرج ابن أبي شيبة: حدثنا أبو خالد عن سعيد بن المرزبان قال: صليت خلف ابن أبي ليلى فسلم واحدة. ثم قال : صليت خلف علي فسلم واحدة و قال أبو هشام الرفاعي : حدثنا أبو أسامة ، قال : حدثنا سعيد بن المرزبان ،وكان ثقة ..

Said Ibn Marzaban relates: “I prayed behind Ibn Abi Layla and he did Taslim once, then he said I prayed behind Imam Ali رضي الله عنه and he did Taslim once as well.”

| Related in the Musannaf of Imam ibn Abi Shaybah – Hasan Li Ghayrihi |

[Note – Said Ibn Marzaban was the student of Anas ibn Malik رضي الله عنه and Said ibn Jubair. Abu Usama said, “He is narrator who is strong and reliable and he narrates authentic Hadith.” Some scholars said he was weak because he didn’t write out his Hadith, but this isn’t a valid reason to consider one of the students of the Sahabah as weak and Allah knows best. There is a difference of opinion, but many great scholars accepted him.]

Ibn Abi Layla was also a student of the companions of the Messenger of Allah/The Sahabah, Allah be well pleased with them, and all of the scholars agree that he was an upright narrator.

28.

حدثنا سهل بن يوسف عن حميد قال : صليت خلف عمر بن عبد العزيز فسلم واحدة.

Sahl Ibn Yusuf relates from Humaid who said, “I prayed behind (Caliph) Umar ibn Abdul Aziz, Allah have mercy upon him, and he did Taslim once.”

| Related in the Musannaf of Imam Ibn Abi Shaybah and it is authentic |

29.

حدثنا يزيد بن هارون عن ابن عون عن الحسن وابن سيرين: أنهما كانا يسلمان تسليمة عن أيمانهما. وصليت خلف القاسم فلا أعلمه خالفهما.

Ibn Awn relates concerning Imam al-Hussain رضي الله عنه and Ibn Sireen, “They both used to say only 1 Taslim upon their right, and I prayed behind Al-Qasim and he didn’t oppose them in this practice.”

| Related in the Musannaf of Imam Ibn Abi Shaybah and it is authentic |

30.

حدثنا مصعب بن المقدام قال : نا إسرائيل عن عمران بن مسلم عن سويد: أنه كان يسلم تسليمة واحدة”.

Imran ibn Muslim relates from Suwaid, that “He used to say Taslim Once.”

| Related in the Musannaf of Imam Ibn Abi Shaybah and it is authentic |

31.

حدثنا يحيى بن سعيد عن إسماعيل عن قيس: أنه كان يسلم تسليمة”.

Yahya ibn Said relates from Ismail who Relates from Ismail who relates that, “Qais use to do 1 Taslim.”

عمل كثير من الصحابة والتابعين، ذكر ابن أبي شيبة جمعا منهم (أكثر من ستة عشر)

Doing 1 Taslim is related from countless students of the Sahabah رضي الله عنهم and the Sahabah themselves, Ibn Abi Shaybah, a student of the Sahabah himself relates from over 70 of them that they use to say 1 Taslim only to end their prayers..

32.

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عُمَرَ، ثنا سَعِيدُ بْنُ مُسْلِمِ بْنِ بَانَكَ، عَنْ أَبِي مَالِكٍ الْحِمْيَرِيِّ، عَنْ عَطَاءِ بْنِ يَسَارٍ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ «سَلَّمَ عَنْ يَمِينِهِ تَسْلِيمَةً وَاحِدَةً»

At’a Ibn Yasir narrates: “The Prophet ﷺ said the Taslim once upon his right.”

Related in the Musnad Al-Harith

33.

. نا مُحَمَّدٌ، نا مُعَلًّي، نا وُهَيْبٌ، عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ أَنَّهُ كَانَ ” يُسَلِّمُ وَاحِدَةً: السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكُمْ “

Hisham Ibn Urwah رضي الله عنه the nephew of Aisha relates: My father would say the Taslim once.”

| Related by Imam ibn Khuzaiyma in his Sahih and it is authentic |

34.

حَدَّثَنَا رَبِيعٌ الْجِيزِيُّ , وَرَوْحُ بْنُ الْفَرَجِ , قَالَا: ثنا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ أَبِي بَكْرٍ الزُّهْرِيُّ قَالَ: ثنا عَبْدُ الْعَزِيزِ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ الدَّرَاوَرْدِيُّ , عَنْ مُصْعَبِ بْنِ ثَابِتٍ , عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ , عَنْ عَامِرِ بْنِ سَعْدٍ , عَنْ سَعْدٍ ” أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ كَانَ يُسَلِّمُ فِي آخِرِ الصَّلَاةِ تَسْلِيمَةً وَاحِدَةً: السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكُمْ “

Imam ibn Shihab Az-Zuhri relates from an authentic chain from Sa’d رضي الله عنه who said, “Indeed, the Messenger of Allah ﷺ performed only one Taslim at the end of his prayer.”

| Sharh Ma’ni Al-Athar of Imam At-Tahawi Al-Hanafi – Imam Ahmad’s Opinion is That The Hadith is Mursal – Sahih |

35.

وذكر الطبري قال: حدثنا محمد بن مرزوق، قال: حدثنا الحجاج بن نصير، أخبرنا أبو عبيدة، حدثنا الحسن ومحمد بن سيرين، قالا: حدثنا أنس بن مالك قال: (صليت خلف رسول الله، وأبى بكر، وعمر، وعثمان، فكانوا يسلمون تسليمة واحدة

Imam al-Tabari relates that Muhammad ibn Sireen and Hassan رضي الله عنه relate that Anas Ibn Malik رضي الله عنه said, “I prayed Salah behind the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, Abu-Bakr, Umar, and Uthman, all of them used to say the Taslim once.”

The Sayings of Maliki Scholars on 1 Taslim

وفي حاشية الدسوقي على الدردير “وَلَا يَضُرُّ زِيَادَةُ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ لِأَنَّهَا خَارِجَةٌ عَنْ الصَّلَاةِ وَظَاهِرُ كَلَامِ أَهْلِ الْمَذْهَبِ أَنَّهَا غَيْرُ سُنَّةٍ وَإِنْ ثَبَتَ بِهَا الْحَدِيثُ لِأَنَّهَا لَمْ يَصْحَبْهَا عَمَلُ أَهْلِ الْمَدِينَةِ بَلْ  الْأَوْلَى الِاقْتِصَارُ عَلَى السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَأَنَّ زِيَادَةَ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ هُنَا خِلَافُ الْأَوْلَى”.

It is mentioned in the Footnotes of Imam ad-Dasuqi in regard to Imam ad-Dardir’s As-Sharh As-Saghir “There is no harm with the addition of the words “the mercy of Allah, and his blessings” because it is outside of Salah, and the apparent words of the scholars of the Maliki Madhab is that it is not a Sunnah, even if it is supported with a Hadith because it is not accompanied with the practice of the people of Medina, rather it is preferred to suffice with one Taslim, because there is a difference in regards to the addition of ‘the mercy of Allah & his blessings.

قال ابن عبد البر: العمل المشهور بالمدينة التسليمة الواحدة, وهو عمل قد توارثه أهل المدينة كابراً عن كابر, لا يروى عن عالم بالحجاز ولا بالعراق ولا بالشام ولا بمصر إنكار التسليمة الواحدة ولا إنكار التسليمتين بل ذلك عندهم معروف

Hafiz Yusuf Ibn Abdul Barr Al-Maliki relates that, “The Known Famous practice in Medina since the time of the prophet is 1 Taslim, and it is the practice which sons inherited from their fathers. It is not narrated from a scholar from the Hijaz, Iraq, Syria, or Egypt objecting to 1 Taslim, or anyone objecting to 2 Taslims, rather both are known and practiced upon-in their respective cities.

قال الحافظ ابن عبد البر:”قال ابن وهب عن مالك: يسلم تلقاء وجهه السلام عليكم”..قال أشهب عن مالك: أنه سئل عن تسليم المصلي وحده فقال: يسلم واحدة عن يمينه. فقيل: وعن يساره؟ فقال: ما كانوا يسلمون إلا واحدة. قال: وإنما حدثت التسليمتين في زمن بني هاشم…

Again, Hafiz Yusuf Ibn Abdul Barr Al-Maliki said, “(A student of Imam Malik by the name of ) Ibn Wahb related from Imam Malik, ‘A person says 1 Taslim’ and he was asked about the Taslim of one Praying and He said, ‘he says the Taslim once on his right’ and it was said it to him, ‘what about the left?’ he responded by saying, “They (The Prophet ﷺ, Khulafa, Sahabah, Tabi’in, and Imams رضي الله عنهم) did not say the Taslim except once, and he said the practice of 2 Taslims was enforced by The Abbasids.

[Note: The Abbasids took the opinion of Imam Abu Hanifa and enforced it upon the people because Caliph Mansur initially wanted to make the Muwatta binding upon everyone to follow, but Imam Malik objected. It was the Abbasids who then made Qadi Yusuf the official Qadi of the empire and so that’s how the Hanafi’s got the upper hand in the region and the practice of 2 Taslims became common.]

وأما الليث بن سعد فقال: أدركت الأئمة والناس يسلمون تسليمة واحدة: السلام عليكم….والعمل المشهور بالمدينة

(One of the supporters of Imam Malik) – Imam al-Layth Ibn Sa’d said, “I have found the Imams and the People saying 1 Taslim only, and the practice is widespread in Medina.”

ما أدركت الأئمة إلا على تسليمة واحدة، فقيل له: تلقاء وجهه؟ قال يتيامن قليلا عن يمينه. قال مالك

Imam Malik said, I have not found the people of Medina except that they did 1 Taslim to end the prayers, it was said to him, ‘facing forward’? he said, ‘inclining to the right a little.”’ Imam Ashab narrates this as in different wording (as he studied with him at a different time)

Al-Bayan Wa-Tahsil – Ibn Rushd

قال محمد بن رشد: السلام الواجب الذي يخرج به المصلي من صلاته ويتحلل به منها تسليمة واحدة قبالة وجهه يتيامن بها قليلا الإمام والمأموم والفذ في ذلك سواء، لقول النبي – عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ -: «تحريم الصلاة التكبير وتحليلها التسليم»

Muhammad Ibn Rushd Al-Maliki said, the obligatory salam from which you leave the prayer is 1 inclining to the right, regardless if the person is a follower, a person praying by himself or anything other than that, because of the narration of the Prophet ﷺ, “The Beginning of the prayer is the Takbir, and its ending is the Taslim.”

قال الحافظ أبو عمر ابن عبد البر:” قال مالك وأصحابه والليث بن سعد: يسلم المصلي من صلاته -نافلة كانت أو فريضة- تسليمة واحدة. السلام عليكم. ولا يقول: ورحمة الله”.

Hafiz Yusuf ibn Abdul Barr said, “Imam Malik, his companions, and Al-Layth ibn Sa’d said,

“The person praying says 1 Taslim only regardless if he is praying a voluntary prayer (Nafila), or an Obligatory prayer (Fareedah). He says As-Salamu-Alaykum, and he does not say, ‘Warahmatullahi’”.

Shaykh Sidi al-Khalil says in his book al-Tawdhih that Imam Malik said,

”Saying 1 Taslim only is the `Amal or the custom of the people of Medina in the time of the Sahabah and Tabi`un, may Allah be pleased with them. Indeed, the Messenger of Allah, ﷺ said one salam, as did Abu Bakr, `Umar, `Uthman رضي الله عنهم, and other than them. This statement has been narrated in this wording by Ibn Yunus.”

وقال مالك فى المجموعة: كما يدخل فى الصلاة بتكبيرة واحدة كذلك يخرج منها بتسليمة واحدة

Imam Malik has stated in other than the Mudawwanah, “Just as a person enters the prayer by one takbir, so does he exit from it with one salam.”

Imam Hattab says in Mawahib al-Jalil,

“Imam Sanad said in al-Tirraz, Imam Malik used as his proof, the custom which he found the people (i.e. the Sahabah and Tabi`un) upon in Medina: this is or him the strongest of proofs. Verily, the prayer was legislated upon everyone, and demanded from all slaves of Allah. For this reason, nothing can be established as necessary in it except through something which is well-known, which can only be referenced through unbroken customs. Such unbroken customs exist in the `Amal of the people of Medina, for verily it is the abode of hijrah, in it the shari`ah took firm root, and in it was the soul taken of the Messenger of Allah. After him, the righteous Caliphs (Khulafa’) established in it the congregational prayer exactly like it was established the day he was taken, and the later people’s (students of the Sahabah) custom was connected with that of the earlier ones (i.e. the Sahabah).”

Ibn al-Qasim narrates that Imam Malik said, “No salam from the prayer is sufficient, except to say, As-salamu `Alaykum and, no way of entering the prayer is sufficient, except to say, Allahu Akbar.”

قال الامام سحنون التنوخي لابن القاسم اريت الامام كيف يسلم قال واحدة قبالة وجهه ويتيامن قليلا فقلتله فالرجل في خاصة نفسه فقال واحدة عن يمينه

Imam Sahnun At-Tanukhi, the author of the Mudawwana asked Imam ibn Al-Qasim, The foremost student of Imam Malik who studied with him for 20 years, “how does a person leading salah exit the prayer?” Ibn Al Qasim Said, “he says it once facing forward then turning right slightly” then Imam Sahnun further questioned him, “How about a person praying by himself?” He said, “Once slightly on his right side.”

There is a famous story concerning Imam ibn Shihab Az-Zuhri who saw an Iraqi man praying in the Masjid of the Prophet ﷺ with 2 Taslims. Ibn Shihab asked the man where did he get that action from. The man said:” on the authority of Nakha’i, on the authority of Ibn Masud who said….” and then gave the Hadith. Ibn Shihab said that he didn’t know of such an action. The man asked Ibn Shihab did he know a third of the Hadith, to which Ibn Shihab said no. He then asked him whether he knew half of all the Hadith to which Ibn Shihab said yes. The man said well put this one with the other half that you don’t know, Qadi Abu Bakr ibn Al-Arabi said this proves that the action in Madina was 1 Taslim

Sharh of Qadi Abu Bakr ibn Al-Arabi

Sayings of Scholars from Other Schools of Thought

قال العلامة النووي في المجموع “……” وقالت طائفة يسلم تسليمة واحدة, قاله ابن عمر وأنس وسلمة ابن الأكوع وعائشة والأوزاعي.– رضي الله عنهم- والحسن

Imam An-Nawawi Relates in his book, Majmu’, “A group – from the Muslims – said only one salam (to end the prayer), and they were Abdullah, Ibn Umar, Anas, Salma Ibn Ak’wa’, Aisha, Awza’i and Hasan.

قال ابن المنذر وقال عمار بن أبي عمار: “كان مسجد المهاجرين يسلمون فيه تسليمة”

Ibn Al-Mundhir Ash-Shafi relates that That there used to be one salam in the masjid of the Muhajirun.

For those who say Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal says 2 are wajib and that one who doesn’t do it his Salah is invalid, Ibn Qudamah a noted Hanbali ascetic, juris consult, Authority in the Imam Ahmad’s School of Fiqh and traditionalist theologian regarding this writes in his work, al-Mughni, “There is no clear text from Ahmad that states that two salaams are obligatory.”

قال ابن المنذر : أجمع العلماء على أن صلاة من اقتصر على تسليمة واحدة جائزة

Ibn al-Mundhir further comments that all scholars agree that making only one salaam is permissible.

قال الإمام النووي في كتاب الأذكار “..” والواجب تسليمة واحدة, وأما الثانية فسنة لو تركها لم يضره

Imam Nawawi mentions the stance of the Shafi school regarding the Taslim, “The Obligation is one Taslim, as for the second it is Sunnah (in the Shafi School) if he were to leave it would not harm him.

قال الشافعيُّ: إن شاء سلَّم تسليمةً واحدة، وإن شاء سلَّم تسليمتين

Imam As-Shafi said, ‘if a person wishes he may say 1 Taslim, and if he wishes he may say 2.’

قال الثوري: واحدة عن يمينه.

Imam Sufyan At-Thawri said, “a person says the Taslim once upon his right side.”

والزهري كان ينكر حديث التسليمتين، ويقول: ما سمعنا بهذا

Imam Az-Zuhri used to reject the hadith of 2 Taslims, and he said, “I have never heard of this practice”

وحكاه أحمد عن أهل المدينة، وقال: ما كانوا يسلمون إلا واحدةً. قال: وإنما حدثت التسليمتين في زمن بني هاشمٍ.

يعني: في ولاية بني العباس.

Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal narrates from the people of Medina, “They did not do the Taslim except once, and he said, ‘The second Taslim was enforced in the Banu Abbasid era”

Note: The school of Imam Ahmad accepts the Amal of Medina as proof.

Source: https://www.themadinanway.com/single-post/2017/04/26/The-Validity-of-Making-One-Taslim-in-The-Maliki-School

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