Maliki Scholars and Technical Terms

Taken from Al-Madkhal al-Wajiz fi Istilat madhhab as-Sadat al-Malikiyya, by Ibrahim al-Mukhtar Ahmad ‘Umar al-Jabruti az-Zayla’i

maliki scholars

Maliki scholars 1

Maliki scholars 2

Maliki scholars 3

Maliki scholars 4

Technical Terms

“The Book”:

By this they mean the Mudawwana.


Ummahat (Primary Sources)

The Four Ummahat

1. The Mudawwana by Sahnun, which is the most respect of the books of the School and its basis.

2. Al-Mustakhrija by Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-‘Utbi al-Andalusi, known as al-‘Utibiyya.

3. Al-Mawwaziyya by Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Iskandari, known as Ibn al-Mawwaz.

4. Al-Wadiha by ‘Abdu’l-Malik ibn Habib as-Sulami.

The Seven Diwans

This includes the four books mentioned above plus:

5. Al-Mukhtalita by Ibn al-Qasim

6. Al-Mabsuta by Qadi Isma’il

7. al-Majmu’a by Ibn ‘Abdus.

The Seven Fuqaha’

Sa’id ibn al-Musayyab

‘Urwa ibn az-Zubayr

al-Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr as-Siddiq

Kharija ibn Zayd ibn Thabit

‘Ubaydullah ibn ‘Utba ibn Mas’ud

Sulayman ibn Yasar,

There is disageement about the seventh. It is said to be Abu Salama ibn ‘Abdu’r-Rahman ibn ‘Awf, Salim ibn ‘Abdullah or Abu Bakr ibn ‘Abdu’r-Rahman.

The ‘Abdullahs

They consist of four men:

‘Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr,

‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘As

‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab

‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas.

The Madinans

Among the followers of Malik, this indicates Ibn Kinan, Ibn al-Majishun, Mutarrif, Ibn Nafi’ Ibn Maslama and their likes.

The ‘Egyptians

This indicates Ibn al-Qasim, Ashhab, Ibn Wahb, Asbagh ibn al-Faraj, Ibn ‘Abdu’l-Hakam and their likes.

The ‘Iraqis

This indicates Qadi Isma’il ibn Ishaq, Qadi Abu’l-Husayn ibn al-Qassar. Ibn al-Jallab, Qadi ‘Abdu’l-Wahhab,

Qadi ‘Abdu’l-Wahhab, Shaykh Abu Bakr al-Abhari and their likes.

The Maghribis

This indicates Shaykh Ibn Zayd, Ibn al-Qabisi, Ibn al-Lubbad, al-Baji, al-Lakhmi, Ibn Muhriz, Ibn ‘Abdu’l-Barr, Ibn Rushd, Ibn al-‘Arabi, Qadi Sanad, al-Makhzumi, Ibn Shiblun and Ibn Sha’ban.

When the Egyptians and Madinans disagree

When the Egyptians and Madinans disagree, generally the Egyptians are put first. When the Maghribs and Iraqis disagree, the Maghribis are put first. Š Al-Ujhuri said, “Putting the Egyptians before others is evident because they are outstanding scholars of the School since they include Ibn Wahb, whose esteem is known, Ibn al-Qasim and Ashhab. Similarly, the Madinas are put before the Maghribis since they include the brothers. The Maghribis are put before the Iraqis since they include the two shaykhs.”

The Two comrades (Qarinayn)

They are Ashhab and Ibn Nafi’. Ashhab was joined with Ibn Nafi’ since he was blind, as al-‘Adawi mentioned. Earlier people applied the term to Imam Malik and Ibn ‘Uyayna. Part of that is what ash-Shafi’i, said,”If it had not been for the two comrades. Malik and Ibn ‘Uyayna,. the knowledge of the Hijaz would have disappearedŠ.”

The Two brothers

The two brothers are Mutarrif and Ibn al-Majishun. That is especially the case since they frequently agreed on rulings and held to them.

The Two Qadis

The two Qadis are Ibn al-Qassar and ‘Abdu’l-Wahhab.

The Two Muhammads

Ibn al-Mawwaz and Ibn Sahnun. Ibn ‘Arafa says that it is Ibn al-Mawwaz and Ibn ‘Abdu’l-Hakam.

The Muhammads

They are four who were alive at the same time among the imams of the Maliki school whose like had not existed in the same time. Two were from Qarawayn: Ibn ‘Abdus and Ibn Sahnun, and two were Egyptian: Ibn ‘Abdu’l-Hakam and Ibn al-Mawwaz.

“Muhammad” refers to Ibn al-Mawwaz

The Imam

This is used for al-Maziri in fiqh, In books of tafsir, usul and kalam, it is usually Imam Fakhr’ud-din ar-Razi ash-Shafi’i. In Shafi’i fiqh, it was the Imam of the two Harams.

The Shaykh

This is used for Ibn Abi Zayd.

The Two Sicilians

They are Ibn Yunus and ‘Abdu’l-Haqq.

The Two Shaykhs

They are Abu Muhammad ‘Abdullah ibn Abi Zayd and Abu’l-Hasan ‘Ali al-Qabisi.

shaykhs maliki


Riwayat and Aqwal

The rule of Khalil and others in general is that by riwayat they mean the views of Malik and by aqwal the views of his people and those after him, like Ibn Rushd.

Ittifaq, Ijma’ and jumhur

Ittifaq means the agreement of the people of the School. Ijma’ means the consensus of he scholars. Jumhur means that of the the four imams.

The Madhhab

Later imams of the School apply this term to that on which there has been a fatwa.

His School

This means what he and those following his path have said. it is called “his school” since it is based on his rules and the basis on which he based his school. It does not mean what he alone believed apart from others of the people of Madina.

The later scholars and the earlier scholars

The first generation of the later scholars in the usage of the school is Ibn Abi Zayd and then those after it. The earlier scholars are those before him.